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Ce cours d’anglais, élaboré par Virginia Allum, auteur et consultante EMP (English for Medical Purposes) traite du tabagisme. Les corrigés des exercices sont à retrouver en PDF en bas de page. N'hésitez pas à vous servir du dictionnaire en ligne Wordreference. Vous trouverez à la fin de cet article les corrections des exercices qui vous sont proposés téléchargeables au format pdf.
Read the terms (stressed syllables are underlined)
Activity 1: Match the English term with the correct French term.
|1. cigarette butt||a) les symptômes du manque|
|2. nicotine patch||b) tabagisme|
|3. nicotine gum||c) traitement nicotinique de substitution (TNS)|
|4. smoking cessation||d) cigarette électronique|
|5. smoking||e) l’infirmière tabacologue (IDET)|
|6. withdrawal symptoms||f) le sous-dosage|
|7. tobacco addiction nurse||g) le sevrage tabagique|
|8. electronic cigarette||h) la gomme à la nicotine|
|9. nicotine replacement therapy||i) le mégot|
|10. underdosing||j) timbre de nicotine|
Activity 2: Complete the sentences using the terms from the vocabulary list.
The role of (1) ________________________ in France can include activities such as preoperative risk assessment of smokers, provision of replacement therapy and advice about temporary abstinence, e.g., during pregnancy.
Many people find (2) ___________________ very difficult, especially if their (3) _________ habit is well established. Despite awareness programs which aim to prevent teenagers from taking that first puff, the numbers of young people who still take up smoking is alarming.
One of the more unpleasant habits of smokers is throwing (4) ________________ on the ground. Various studies suggest that they can take up to 10 years to break down.
The use of (5) ________________ (vaping), allows smokers to inhale nicotine in a vapour without producing harmful by-products such as tar or carbon monoxide.
Nicotine cravings can be reduced by using (6) ________________ which smokers can chew and (7) ______________________ which are applied to the skin. Both products are types of (8) ______________________
Because not every smoker reacts in the same way to nicotine, it can be difficult to adjust the dosage of nicotine replacement treatments. Taking in an excessive dose of nicotine is rare and easily remedied by removing a nicotine patch or spitting out the nicotine gum. (9) ______________ (less than a therapeutic amount) is more common and can lead to the experience of (10) ___________________ which may result in relapse and a return to smoking.
Activity 3: Read the text and answer the questions that follow.
Smoking: time to kick the habit
One of the reasons smoking cigarettes is highly addictive is because the active ingredient in tobacco is nicotine. Nicotine, a type of naturally occurring alkaloid found in plants of the nightshade family, stimulates receptors in the brain to release the ‘feel good’ chemical called dopamine. As the smoking habit continues, the number of nicotine receptors in the brain increases. However, although smokers have more nicotine receptors than non-smokers, not all smokers have the same levels of these receptors. This is part of the reason why some smokers can ‘kick the habit’ easily, whilst others struggle to quit smoking.
The brain adapts to nicotine very quickly and smokers start to crave more and more of the chemical to recreate the pleasurable dopamine-like sensation. Smokers may reach for a cigarette when feeling depressed or anxious which adds to the cycle of dependence. Other situations can trigger a perceived need for a cigarette. The smell of cigarette smoke or the sight of a cigarette packet can entice some smokers to light up themselves. Others associate smoking with social activities, such as drinking coffee or alcohol.
The consequences of smoking are usually not experienced in the short-term, leading some smokers to downplay the dangers of the habit. The first effects of smoking are often to the heart and lungs. Effects such as faster cognitive decline and increased risk of dementia compared with non-smokers usually take longer to become evident.
Although smoking is highly addictive, the physical benefits of quitting are felt relatively quickly. Cardiac circulation and lung function improve within 3 months and the risk of a heart attack drops by 50% within a year. The risk of stroke reduces to the same level as a non-smoker between 5 and 15 years. Carbon monoxide levels in the blood reduce to a normal level within 12 hours making breathing much easier.
Unfortunately, the neurological effects of quitting may not be as positive as the physical effects with many ex-smokers experiencing irritability, anxiety and strong cravings for nicotine leading them to consider returning to smoking. For this reason, an effective quit smoking program needs to have a multi-faceted approach to overcome all the causes of addiction.
- Smoking is described as being highly addictive because …
A it’s easy to be hooked on it.
B it happens straightaway.
C it’s very enjoyable.
- To kick the habit means ….
A to be aggressive about things you do.
B to stop something you are told to do.
C to be successful about stopping something.
- To have a craving means …
A to be willing to pay for something you need
B to have a strong feeling that you want something
C to enjoy the taste of something
- A trigger is something that…
A causes something else to start.
B happens as a result of another action.
C leads to an unpleasant sensation.
- The effects of smoking can take time to develop, so smokers …
A only worry about immediate problems.
B often minimise the harm caused.
C deny that there is anything to worry about.
- Smoking cessation …
A cures heart and lung problems.
B reduces the severity of heart attack and stroke.
C can help body functions to return to healthy levels.
Activity 4: Complete the dialogue between a nurse and a patient using the words below to help you. After checking your answers, role play the dialogue with a partner.
- nicotine gum
Nurse: I’ve brought you a packet of (1) ______________to help with your quit smoking program.
Patient: Thanks. I’ve tried to stop smoking a few times before on my own but have never used anything to help me. I’ve never been very successful and have always gone back to smoking.
Nurse: Well, it’s good that you are trying again. Hopefully, by replacing the (2) ____________in your system you’ll be able to quit this time or at least cut down a lot. The first thing to look at is the (3) _________of gum which is appropriate for you. You told us that you smoke your first cigarette of the day within 30 minutes of waking up, so you’ll need the 4mg gum.
Patient: I see. Do I use it like regular chewing gum? You know, whenever I want?
Nurse: No. You need to think of it as a (4)___________. Chew the gum regularly, one (5) _______________every one to two hours for the first 6 weeks.
Patient: Just for 6 weeks?
Nurse: No. After six weeks, you (6) _______________the time between doses to one piece every 2 to 4 hours. Do that for the next 3 weeks. Then, during the following 3 weeks, you’ll have one piece every 4 to 8 hours.
Patient: I see. So, I slowly (7) ______________the amount of nicotine I’m having over 12 weeks?
Nurse: That’s right. You’ll notice a different (8) _______________when you chew the gum, unlike normal chewing gum. Slowly chew the gum until you either taste the nicotine or feel a (9) ____________ in your mouth.
Patient: What do I do then?
Nurse: Stop chewing and move the nicotine gum between your (10) _________and gums. When the feeling has gone, start chewing again. Keep doing this for about 30 minutes. It’s also important to remember not to eat or drink for 15 minutes before chewing the gum.
Patient: OK. Is there anything else I should be careful about?
Nurse: A few things to be aware of. Don’t chew more than one piece of gum at a time and don’t have more than 24 pieces a day. Chewing one piece of gum continuously can cause you to have hiccups or you may get some (11)_____________. It might cause you to feel sick as well.
Patient: What if it doesn’t work?
Nurse: Stop using the gum after 12 weeks and see how you’ve gone. You should (12) ____________ your doctor if you still have cravings after this time as the dose may need to be adjusted.
Virginia ALLUM Author and Consultant in English for Medical Purposes