Ce nouveau cours d’anglais, élaboré par Virginia Allum, auteur et consultante EMP (English for Medical Purposes) traite de l'accident d'exposition au sang. Les corrigés des exercices sont à retrouver en PDF en bas de page. N'hésitez pas à vous servir du dictionnaire en ligne Wordreference. Vous trouverez à la fin de cet article les corrections des exercices qui vous sont proposés téléchargeables au format pdf.
accidental exposure to blood (AEB)
First Aid kit
healthcare associated infections (HCAIs)
personal protective equipment (PPE)
post exposure prophylaxis (PEP)
Activity 1: Match the French term with the correct English term.
|1. accident d'exposition au sang (AES)||a) blade|
|2. prophylaxie post-exposition||b) body fluids|
|3. piqûre d'aiguille||c) First Aid kit|
|4. sérum physiologique||d) incision|
|5. infections associées aux soins||e) accidental exposure to blood (AEB)|
|6. liquides biologiques||f) sharps container|
|7. équipements de protection individuelle (EPI)||g) to squeeze|
|8. coupure||h) needle stick injury|
|9. presser||i) saline solution|
|10. trousse de premiers secours||j) personal protective equipment (PPE)|
|11. contenant pour objets piquants ou tranchants||k) post exposure prophylaxis (PEP)|
|12. lame||l) healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs):|
Activity 2: Complete the definitions using the terms from the vocabulary list.
- ___________________________: receptacle which is used for biohazardous waste which is sharp and can puncture the skin, e.g. scalpels, needles and stitch cutters.
- ___________________________: infections which occur in hospitals and start before patients are admitted.
- ___________________________: unexpected and unplanned contact with blood during a procedure.
- ___________________________: collection of medical equipment used by first responders at an accident.
- ___________________________: sharp, cutting point of a scalpel
- ___________________________: medical treatment started after exposure to an HIV-infected needle
- ___________________________: any fluids which leave the body, e.g. blood or urine
- ___________________________: wounds caused by punctures in the skin, e.g. by needles
- ___________________________: sterile salt water solution
- ___________________________: equipment worn to protect healthcare workers from coming in contact with body fluids
- ___________________________: medical term for a surgical cut into the skin to make an opening
- ___________________________: to press the edges of a part of the body forcing blood to flow out
Activity 3: Read the text about preventing sharps’ injuries and answer the questions that follow.
Accidental exposure to blood (AEB)
Certain medical procedures carry a higher risk of exposure of the patient’s open tissues to the blood of the healthcare worker. These procedures are known as exposure prone procedures (EPPs). EPPs include procedures where the healthcare worker’s gloved hands may come into contact with:
- sharp instruments, needle tips or sharp tissues, e.g. small pieces of bone or teeth
- the inside of a patient’s open body cavity during open surgical procedures
- wounds, e.g. during deep suturing or dressing changes of deep wounds
Employers have a responsibility to provide employees with information about the risks from injuries involving medical sharps, as well as training in good practice in preventing sharps injuries.
The main risks of infection from skin or mucous membrane exposures are from HBV (hepatitis B virus), HCV (hepatitis C virus) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), however other infectious agents can also be transmitted on rare occasions.
The risk of transmission following a needlestick injury has been estimated at approximately 1 in 3 for HBV, 1 in 30 for HCV and 1 in 300 for HIV.
Training in the correct use of sharps disposal containers should include advice on the location of the containers:
- in a safe position which avoids the risk of spillage; that is, on a level surface
- away from public access areas where the bins may be accidentally knocked over
- at a height which is convenient for the healthcare worker to easily dispose of used sharps
- away from children or vulnerable people
Sharps bins should be temporarily closed when not in use. Once bins are filled to the fill line, they should be closed securely and disposed of in an appropriate waste bin. The label on the bin should be completed with the date of closure and signature of the healthcare worker responsible for closing the bin. All bins should be emptied every 3 months, even if they are not at capacity.
- Exposure prone procedures are procedures which …
- A are low risk because nurses always wear gloves.
- B are high risk because blood contact is more possible.
- C are not a risk if nurses have limited contact with instruments.
- Mucous membrane exposure to blood-borne viruses may be through…
- A the eyes, nose and mouth
- B the mouth only, e.g. accidental ingestion
- C the eyes only, e.g. splash injuries
- The virus which carries the highest risk of being transmitted during an AEB is…
- A Hepatitis B virus
- B Hepatitis C virus
- C HIV
- The location of sharps bins is important to …
- A indicate where healthcare workers can find them
- B ensure they are in a convenient place for their use.
- C prevent contents from spilling out of the container.
- The safe disposal of sharps bins includes …
- A correct closure of a bin that is full
- B use of the correct clinical waste bin
- C both A and B
Activity 4: Watch the video about the prevention of needlestick injuries and complete the sentences. Watch it a second time while reading the transcript to check your answers.
Nurse: I’ll explain the (1)______________________ measures you should take and then talk about how to (2) ______________________ the injury.
Nurse: ……it’s important to keep in mind the (3)________________ measures I talked about earlier to avoid (4) _____________________.
Student Nurse: You mean about using (5)___________________ properly?
Nurse: And not re-sheathing needles after giving (6) _________________.
Nurse: After giving an injection, the (7) ________ and needle should be disposed of in the sharps bin immediately.
Student Nurse: But what if I accidentally have a (8) _______________?
Nurse: First, wash the site of exposure with lots of soap and water, without (9) ___________ the area.
Nurse: …don’t (10) _________________ out the blood or try to suck it out. Instead, allow some (11) ___________________ of the wound.
Nurse: After you’ve cleaned the area, dry it and put on a (12) _______________ dressing.
Nurse: ….you must report any (13) _____________________________ so that you have access to medical advice.
Nurse: This might include vaccination against hepatitis B, taking (14) _________ drugs in the case of exposure to hepatitis C or PEP in the case of exposure to HIV.
Virginia ALLUM Author and Consultant in English for Medical Purposes