Régulièrement, cette rubrique animée par Virginia Allum, auteur et consultante EMP (English for Medical Purposes), vous permettra, exercices à l'appui, de parfaire votre anglais médical au travers de situations de soins concrètes. Bon travail à tous ! Corrections en fin d'article...
N'hésitez pas à vous servir du dictionnaire en ligne Wordreference. Vous trouverez à la fin de cet article les corrections des exercices qui vous sont proposés téléchargeables au format pdf.
Global Maternal and Infant Health
Before you start, think about the following :
- What does ‘maternal health’ mean?
- What does ‘infant mortality’ mean?
- What is female genital mutilation (FGM)?
- What is contraception?
Joint evaluation of French Foreign Ministry and AFD actions for maternal and child health to implement the commitments made by France in Muskoka (April 2015) Both texts taken from www.diplomatie.gouv.fr
Match the terms with their meaning.
|1. adolescent||a) neonate, recently born baby|
|2. contraception||b) relating to a mother|
|3. family planning||c) birth of a living baby|
|4. gender equality||d) relating to producing offspring|
|5. live birth||e) describes a person who has gone through puberty, but is not an adult|
|6. maternal||f) deliberate spacing of children by means of avoidance of pregnancy|
|7. mortality||g) equal opportunity for both men and women|
|8. new born||h) capable of continuing with long-term effect|
|9. reproductive||i) number of deaths per unit of population|
|10. sustainable||j) various methods which prevent pregnancy|
Scan the excerpt below and decide on the most appropriate title for the article.
- a) Every Women Every Child: G8 Promise to Reduce Global Infant Mortality Rates
- b) Every Women Every Child: France Leads the Way
- c) Every Women Every Child: Maternal Death Rates Drop Along with AIDS-related Deaths
- d) Every Women Every Child: Still A Long Way to Go
Lack of access to quality health services around the world primarily affects women, new borns, children and adolescents, a great many of whose deaths are from preventable causes.
During the 2010 Muskoka Summit (French) in Canada, the G8 partners committed to increasing their contribution to the fight against maternal and child mortality under the Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015). For its part, France undertook to increase its contribution by €500 million between 2011 and 2015, representing €100 million per year in addition to the €340 million estimated in 2008, the base year used in the accounting methodology approved by the G8 partners. In total, France should contribute more than €2 billion over the 2011-2015 period to combat maternal and infant mortality.
This mobilization was then amplified by the UN Secretary-General and extended to the entire international community through the “Every Woman Every Child” initiative. The mobilization of the G8 and, more generally, the international community, centred around the UN Secretary-General’s initiative, has helped cut maternal and infant mortality worldwide by almost half :
- infant mortality has decreased from 90 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 46 per 1000 in 2013 (compared to 4 per 1000 in France);
- maternal mortality has decreased from 380 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 210 per 100,000 in 2013 (compared to 10.3 per 100,000 in France).
However, despite investments in combating maternal and infant mortality, and to support sexual and reproductive health, the situation remains worrying, particularly in West and Central Africa : complications linked to early pregnancy and HIV/AIDS remain the two main causes of death among adolescent girls in most developing countries; every year, 6.6 million children still die before the age of five, of whom 2.9 million are new borns in the first month of life, from easily avoidable disease such as malnutrition (the underlying cause of 45 % of all deaths amongst under-fives), pneumonia and diarrhoea.
The UN Secretary-General will propose a new strategy in this area for the 2015-2030 period. The Open Working Group proposal for Sustainable Development Goals, which will define the future post-2015 development goals, recommends, in its health goal (goal 3), to :
- By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births;
- By 2030, end preventable deaths of new borns and children under 5 years of age;
- By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes;
- Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, and access to quality essential healthcare services and to quality essential medicines and vaccines.
Achieving these goals will require the realization of gender equality, women’s rights, including their sexual and reproductive rights and autonomy (goal 5).
Answer the questions about the text.
- In 2010, countries in the G8 partnership agreed to ____________________.
- a) make greater financial contributions in addition to the 2008 base rate to enable a reduction in maternal and infant death rates
- b) continue to contribute to a Canadian Development Fund which researches maternal and infant mortality rates
- c) increase contributions to the Millennium Development Goals, as the original estimate of €340 million was insufficient
- The “Every Woman Every Child” initiative has ______________.
- a) cut UN death rates of mothers and babies
- b) been instrumental in reducing maternal and infant mortality globally by around 50%
- c) is expected to cut maternal and infant death rates by 2013
- From 1990 to 2013, _________________________________.
- a) 90% of infants died of a global sample of 1000
- b) 0.4% of infants died world-wide
- c) infant deaths dropped from 9% to 4.6% throughout the world
- In Central and West Africa, the main causes of death in adolescent girls _________.
- a) are HIV/AIDS and pregnancy-related health issues
- b) are giving birth and AIDS
- c) post-natal complications and HIV
- In Central and West Africa, children die of _____________________.
- a) diseases caused by the warm climate
- b) poor nutrition and chest infections
- c) diseases which are managed easily in the First World
- The 2015 – 2030 strategy aims to _________________________.
- a) end both maternal and infant death rates
- b) ensure all adolescents have access to family planning
- c) reduce the rates of infant and maternal mortality as well as provide sexual and reproductive services globally
Read the text and complete the table which follows.
Sexual and reproductive health
There are numerous economic, legal and social barriers to individuals’ access to sexual and reproductive health services. Complications related to pregnancy or childbirth and HIV/AIDS are currently the two leading causes of death among teenagers and girls in low- and intermediate-income countries. These deaths can be prevented through simple, effective measures such as access to contraception, sex education, prevention, information and screening, and integrated prenatal care.
The ability of women to prevent, space and limit pregnancies through the use of contraceptive methods has a direct impact on their health. All women, including adolescents, must have access to family planning services, contraception and abortion services under good conditions and to sexual health information and services.
Almost 220 million women wish to limit, space out or reduce the number of pregnancies yet still remain without access to modern contraception, leading to more than 80 million unwanted pregnancies every year and more than 20 million unsafe abortions.
Adolescent girls and young women are most affected. More than 34 million people live with HIV/AIDS, including 3.4 million children under 15. In 2011, 2.5 million people were newly affected. Every year, 499 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occur, with major consequences for health, including maternal and newborn health. More than 2000 young people are infected with HIV every day.
The general wellbeing of women, in physical, mental and social terms, first and foremost requires that equality, mutual respect and bodily integrity to be guaranteed through abandonment of harmful traditional practices.
- 30 million girls are estimated to live under the threat of female genital mutilation (FGM) over the next 10 years; Almost 142 million girls could be married before their 18th birthdays by 2020.
- more than 15million girls every year aged 15-19 give birth to a child, and more than 2 million under 15. In most cases, this takes place in the context of a forced marriage.
One in three girls under 18 is married without her consent in low- and intermediate-income countries. Under the Ouagadougou Partnership, France supports reproductive health programmes in nine French-speaking African countries : Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo (€100 million over the 2011-2015 period).
Complete the information using some of the terms below.
- 15 million
- 4.3 million
- 20 million
- 12 million
- 30 million
- 142 million
- 220 million
- 34 million
- 499 million
- 3.4 million
- 100 million
- Around ____________ women want control over the size of their families, despite not having access to reliable contraceptives.
- Every year, there are around ________ unplanned pregnancies as well as __________ terminations of pregnancy.
- HIV/AIDS affects more than ____________ people, __________ of whom are under the age of fifteen.
- ___________ cases of sexually transmitted illnesses resulting in poor maternal and infant health are diagnosed each year.
- Over the coming decade, a possible ____________ girls will be under the threat of FGM.
- By 2020, around ____________ young women could be married by the time they are 18.
- In excess of _____________ girls between the ages of 15 and 19 will have already had their first child, many within a forced marriage.
- France spent over €__________ between 2011 and 2015 in reproductive health projects in several African countries.
Virginia ALLUM Author and Consultant in English for Medical Purposes United Kingdom