Ce nouveau cours d’anglais, élaboré par Virginia Allum, auteur et consultante EMP (English for Medical Purposes) traite de l’hépatite C. Les corrigés des exercices sont à retrouver en PDF en bas de page. N'hésitez pas à vous servir du dictionnaire en ligne Wordreference. Vous trouverez à la fin de cet article les corrections des exercices qui vous sont proposés téléchargeables au format pdf.
Match the terms with the French translation.
|1. syringe||a) sang à sang|
|2. needle||b) sclère|
|3. contaminated||c) période d'incubation|
|4. blood transfusion||d) jaunisse|
|5. sexual practices||e) aiguille|
|6. incubation period||f) contaminé|
|7. blood-to-blood||g) asymptomatique|
|8. asymptomatic||h) transfusion sanguine|
|9. jaundice||i) seringue|
|10. sclera||j) pratiques sexuelles|
Medical terminology: the prefix a-
The prefix a- can mean:
- not, without or lack of, e.g. asymptomatic (no symptoms, without any symptoms)
- the negative of something, e.g. abnormal (not normal)
What do the following terms mean?
Complete the definitions. Use the terms in the table to help you.
- _____________________: also called the whites of the eye.
- _____________________: made impure by the introduction of pathogens.
- _____________________: describes contact with the blood of an infected person
- _____________________: instrument for introducing fluids into the body
- _____________________: condition causing yellowing of the skin and the sclera
- _____________________: time between when a person catches a virus and when their symptoms start
- _____________________: process of transferring the blood of a donor to another person usually through an intravenous route.
- _____________________: manner in which people express their sexuality
- _____________________: not showing any signs of a disease
- _____________________: sharp instrument used to puncture the skin
Read the text and complete the summary.
The transmission of the Hepatitis C virus
The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a bloodborne virus which may be transmitted through several ways. IV drug users who share infected equipment like syringes or needles or the use of improperly sterilised injecting equipment including tattoo machines can pass on the virus.
The transfusion of contaminated or unscreened blood products also poses an increased risk of the transmission of the virus. Finally, sexual practices which lead to exposure to blood are high risk activities for contracting the virus. Sexual practices which may cause blood-to-blood contact with the virus include unprotected anal sex, vaginal sex during menstruation and rough vaginal sex causing bleeding from either the penis or vagina.
HCV is more prevalent among people who are HIV-positive than in those who are not. Studies suggest that this is because the viral load of HCV is increased in coinfection with HIV. HCV can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby, although this type of transmission is less common.
Hepatitis C is not spread through breast milk, food, water or casual contact such as hugging, kissing or sharing food or drinks with an infected person. In addition, oral sex is considered to carry a low risk of transmitting the virus.
The incubation period for HCV is between 2 weeks and 6 months. Around 80% of people are asymptomatic after the initial infection. An acute infection phase of the virus may cause fever, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, the presence of dark urine and grey-coloured faeces and ultimately, jaundice causing yellowing of the skin and the sclera.
- at first
- IV drug users
Hepatitis C is a type of (1) _________ carried in the blood. One high risk group, (2) __________, may transmit the virus by sharing infected needles. If surgical equipment is (3) ________________ improperly, equipment can become contaminated. Blood products should also be (4) ____________________ before transfusion or they may contain harmful micro-organisms.
HCV can be transmitted through sexual activity, in particular through high risk sexual practices which have a greater chance of (5) ______________________contact. The virus is also more common in people who have (6) _______________.
Although uncommon, it is possible for a (7) ___________ to be infected by his/her mother, however, studies have shown that HCV cannot be contracted by (8) _____________a meal with an infected person.
The HCV can take up to half a year before (9) _________________ show and a large proportion of people with HCV show no symptoms of the disease (10) ____________.
Read the abstract and complete the matching activity
Hepatitis C Virus Vaccine: Challenges and Prospects
from: Duncan JD, Urbanowicz RA, Tarr AW, Ball JK. Hepatitis C Virus Vaccine: Challenges and Prospects. Vaccines (Basel). 2020 Feb 17;8(1):90. doi: 10.3390/vaccines8010090. PMID: 32079254; PMCID: PMC7157504.
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes both acute and chronic infection and continues to be a global problem despite advances in antiviral therapeutics. Current treatments fail to prevent reinfection and remain expensive, limiting their use to developed countries, and the asymptomatic nature of acute infection can result in individuals not receiving treatment and unknowingly spreading HCV. A prophylactic vaccine is therefore needed to control this virus. Thirty years since the discovery of HCV, there have been major gains in understanding the molecular biology and elucidating the immunological mechanisms that underpin spontaneous viral clearance, aiding rational vaccine design. This review discusses the challenges facing HCV vaccine design and the most recent and promising candidates being investigated.
Match the terms with their meanings.
|1. antiviral therapeutics||a) describes the immune system|
|2. reinfection||b) time it takes for a virus not to be detected in blood tests|
|3. prophylactic||c) study of biological activity in and between cells|
|4. viral clearance||d) class of drug which targets a specific virus|
|5. molecular biology||e) something which prevents disease|
|6. immunological||f) become infected with a virus again|
Virginia ALLUM Author and Consultant in English for Medical Purposes