Ce cours d’anglais, élaboré par Virginia Allum, auteur et consultante EMP (English for Medical Purposes) traite de la bronchiolite oblitérante et du vapotag. Les corrigés des exercices sont à retrouver en PDF en bas de page. N'hésitez pas à vous servir du dictionnaire en ligne Wordreference. Vous trouverez à la fin de cet article les corrections des exercices qui vous sont proposés téléchargeables au format pdf.
Pronunication check. Say the terms in the vocabulary list. The stressed syllable is in bold. Write down andy you don’t know.
Vocabulary list :
- bronchiolitis obliterans
- lung transplant
- popcorn lung
- to vape
- a vaper
- lower respiratory tract
- upper respiratory tract
Match the English term with the French term.
|1. vaping||a) greffe de poumon|
|2. popcorn lung||b) poumon de pop-corn|
|3. flavouring||c) vapotage|
|4. bronchiolitis obliterans||d) l'appareil respiratoire inférieur|
|5. e-cigarette||e) liée à la vapotage|
|6. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)||f) voies respiratoires|
|7. flu-like symptoms||g) substance aromatisante|
|8. lung transplant||h) l'appareil respiratoire supérieur|
|9. e-liquid||i) bronchiolite oblitérante|
|10. lower respiratory tract||j) vapoteur|
|11. upper respiratory tract||k) symptômes pseudo-grippaux|
|12. vaping-related||l) virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS)|
|13. airways||m) e-liquide|
|14. vaper||n) cigarette électronique|
Image à mettre dans encadré ci-dessous
What is bronchiolitis ?
Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory tract infection affecting babies and the very young. Its main cause is the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) which most babies under 2 years old are colonised by. The clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis is based upon the condition’s typical signs and symptoms. Usually starting in the upper airway, it progresses to the lower respiratory system. The early symptoms are flu-like symptoms and a dry cough as the airways start to become inflamed. The swelling of the bronchioles in conjunction with increased mucus production causes a wet cough and breathing difficulties. In general, the condition is self-limiting and clears after a few weeks.
Complete the sentences with terms from the text.
- The ____________________ are the small airways of the lungs which branch out from the larger bronchi.
- The _________________________________ is a passage from the nose and mouth through the throat to the lungs, through which air passes.
- __________________________ is a medical term meaning inflammation of the bronchioles.
- The ________________________________ is a virus commonly found in the lungs of babies and young children.
- ___________________ or swollen airways in the early stages of the condition cause flu-like symptoms and a dry cough.
- Later, a ___________________ develops, because of increased mucus production.
- Another late symptom of the condition is ___________________________
- The term meaning ‘clears on its own’ is ______________________
Read the text and complete the activity.
Although sharing the same name as the commonly occurring bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans is not the same disease. Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a serious condition that causes scarring and constriction in the airways. The term obliterans means permanent narrowing. As a result of the scarring, air movement and gas exchange in the alveoli is severely affected.
Bronchiolitis obliterans gained the nickname ‘Popcorn Lung’ after a 2004 report brought to light several cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in workers in a microwave popcorn plant in Missouri. Investigations suggested that the inhalation of a popcorn flavouring agent had probably contributed the development of the lung disease. Other chemicals, when inhaled, have also been implicated as risk factors of the disease, e.g. the chemical released into the air when grinding and packaging coffee beans.
More recently, the inhalation of certain e-liquids during vaping are also suspected to be a cause of developing a lung condition which is similar to ‘popcorn lung’. Of concern to health professionals is the fact that whilst some substances are safe to swallow, they become toxic when heated and inhaled. This fact has proven to cause difficulties when drafting regulations regarding vaping ingredients. In other words, there is a need to specifically refer to the inhaled form of chemicals in the regulations.
Meanwhile, reported lung diseases which are vaping-related continue to rise. Whilst mortality rates from vaping-relating lung disease appear to be linked to flavoured e-cigarettes which contain THC in the main, some healthcare practitioners warn that vaping products in general have not been deemed safe. Healthcare professionals point out that the most serious cases of vaping-related lung damage can lead to the need for lung transplants.
Grammar Focus - Compound Nouns
Compound nouns are very common in English. They are nouns which may be made of :
- Two nouns in a similar format to French, e.g. blood pressure (tension artérielle)
- Two nouns with a different format in French, e.g. risk factor (facteur de risque)
- One noun + one adjective, e.g. vaping-related (liée à la vapotage)
Locate the compound words in the text relating to ‘lung’ and ‘vaping’
lung __________ lung _______ lung _________ ___________ lung
vaping-____________ vaping _________ vaping ___________
What are these terms in French ? Place the French terms under the correct headings. An example for each is given to help you.
|Compound Noun||Term linked with ‘de’||Term using ‘liée à’|
|1. condition pulmonaire||2. greffe de poumon||7. liée à la vapotage|
|2. ___________________||4. ___________________|
Answer the questions about the text.
- What is the main difference between the common condition bronchiolitis and the rarer condition bronchiolitis obliterans ?
- Why was bronchiolitis obliterans given the nickname of popcorn lung ?
- Why are some vaping chemicals suspected of causing a similar condition to popcorn lung ?
- What is the most serious consequence of vaping-related damage to the lungs ?
Virginia ALLUM Author and Consultant in English for Medical Purposes http://www.ifsiprepanglais.com/