Anglais médical - Tout savoir sur le tabagisme et la santé dentaire
Tabagisme et santé dentaire
Ce cours d’anglais, élaboré par Virginia Allum, auteur et consultante EMP (English for Medical Purposes) traite du tabagisme. Les corrigés des exercices sont à retrouver en PDF en bas de page. N'hésitez pas à vous servir du dictionnaire en ligne Wordreference. Vous trouverez à la fin de cet article les corrections des exercices qui vous sont proposés téléchargeables au format pdf.
Part 1: Vocabulary
Review the terms in the vocabulary list. The stressed syllables are in bold.
acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis
Note: alveolar has two meanings
- relating to the alveolus of the lungs
- relating to the part of the jawbone that contains tooth sockets
Part 2: Complete the definitions using terms from the vocabulary list.
(1) ________________ is a soft, sticky film that covers the teeth after bacteria mixes with saliva and food. If the film builds up, it can harden and form (2) ____________.
Gum disease, caused by an inflammation of the gums is known as (3) __________. If the condition is not treated and bacteria continues to accumulate on the gums,
(4) _________________________, a serious gum infection can develop.
(5) _________________________ is a painful condition of the gums causing pain, bleeding gums and (6) _____________ or bad breath.
A condition called (7) ___________________ or nicotine stomatitis causes painless white patches to form in the mouth of a regular smokers.
The medical term meaning ‘not having any teeth’ is (8) ___________, whereas people who have their natural teeth are called (9) ______________.
Marks on the teeth which are not easily removed by tooth brushing is called
The medical term for a dry socket is (11) ____________________. The condition may occur after a tooth extraction, if a blood clot at the site of the extraction falls off before the wound heals.
Part 3: Read the text and answer the questions.
Smoking and Dental Health
It is well-known that smoking can cause or contribute to many different medical issues, such as lung cancer and heart disease. People who smoke are also at a higher risk of developing oral problems, the most common being:
- periodontal (gum) disease
- mouth cancer
- decay and tooth loss
- dry socket after dental surgery
Gum disease: The risk of gum disease is higher in people who smoke less than 10 cigarettes a day and up to 5 times more likely for people who smoke heavily. Periodontal disease is caused when bacteria and the remains of food form a covering, called dental plaque over the teeth. If the plaque is not removed when brushing the teeth, it can harden and form tartar which starts to irritate the gums. The irritation, called gingivitis, eventually causes periodontitis or periodontal disease. Left untreated, this can lead to bone damage around the roots of the teeth and tooth loosening.
Mouth cancer: Tobacco is the main cause of mouth cancers which are most likely to occur on the side of the tongue, the floor of the mouth and lips. People who smoke and drink alcohol at the same time have a much higher risk of developing mouth cancers, because alcohol may enable carcinogens, including tobacco, to enter and damage cells.
Decay and tooth loss: Smoking can cause dry mouth which results in decreased production of saliva. Saliva reduces the build-up of plaque as well as bacterial growth in the mouth. It also helps to neutralise harmful acids that break down tooth enamel. The longer bacteria and plaque stay on the teeth, the more acid the bacteria produce leading to halitosis, loss of taste, tooth decay and ultimately, tooth loss.
Dry socket: Smoking can lead to the development of a painful condition called dry socket (alveolar osteitis) after tooth extraction. Blood clots at the site of the tooth extraction may not develop, or if they do develop, they may dislodge or dissolve before the wound has healed.
- Smoking has a significant impact on a person’s health and may lead to the develop of several dental conditions. True / False
- The removal of plaque from the teeth is called gingivitis. True /False
- Smoking at the same time as drinking alcohol causes a higher risk of developing mouth cancer. True/False
- Saliva can break down tooth enamel. True /False
- Dry socket is the a type of blood clotting disease. True / False
Part 4: Read the abstract.
Smoking and oral health status
Clinical studies suggest that smokers have a higher than average risk of periodontal disease and poor oral health status. In 2003, the Canadian Community Health Survey--a multistage, nationwide household survey--asked a series of questions related to oral health status. This report is based on the population aged 18 and older who answered the optional module on oral health (33,777 respondents). This subsample represents a weighted population of 23.9 million. The overall survey response rate was 80.6%.In our sample, 24% of respondents were current cigarette smokers, 43% were former smokers and 33% had never smoked. The prevalence of current smoking declined with advancing age and was inversely associated with household income and level of education. The prevalence of edentulism was 15% among current smokers compared with 7% among those who had never smoked. In the dentate population, current smokers were less likely to have visited a dentist in the past 3 years and more likely to report sensitivity of teeth, tooth ache in the previous month, pain in the mouth or face and social limitations because of teeth. When age, sex, household income and dental insurance were controlled in a multivariate logistic regression model, current smokers and former smokers had higher odds of reporting oral-facial pain than people who had never smoked. Prevention of smoking onset and support for cessation of smoking could contribute to improved oral health status.
Complete the table using the terms below.
|tooth sensitivity||oral||no data||cessation|
The Canadian Community Health Survey 2003
|Current smokers||Former smokers||Never smoked|
|_____ of participants||43% of participants||33% of participants|
|Edentulism in 15%||Edentulism – ______||Edentulism in 7%|
* less likely to visit _______
* more likely to report
* more likely to report ________ limitations
|more likely to report ______________pain||more likely to report oral-facial pain||less likely to report oral-facial pain|
Virginia ALLUM Author and Consultant in English for Medical Purposes
Source : infirmiers.com