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Anglais medical - Tout savoir sur la drépanocytose

Régulièrement, cette rubrique animée par Virginia Allum, auteur et consultante EMP (English for Medical Purposes), vous permettra, exercices à l'appui, de parfaire votre anglais médical au travers de situations de soins concrètes. Bon travail à tous ! Corrections en fin d'article...

N'hésitez pas à vous servir du dictionnaire en ligne Wordreference. Vous trouverez à la fin de cet article les corrections des exercices qui vous sont proposés téléchargeables au format pdf.

Activity 1 : Talking about Sickle Cell Disease

What do you know about sickle cell anaemia ? Answer True or false.

  1. It is a type of haematological disorder. T/F
  2. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is the same as sickle cell disease (SCD). T/F
  3. In SCD, red blood cells develop into abnormal shapes. T/F
  4. Some of the symptoms of SCD are joint pain and anaemia. T/F
  5. SCD is a genetic condition which is more common in Northern Europeans. T/F

Activity 2

Match the terms

red blood cell passed on within a family e.g. a genetic condition
haemoglobin pain caused when blood vessels are blocked by abnormal blood cells
anaemia inflammation of the joints of the fingers or toes
splenomegaly blood condition characterised by low haemoglobin
vaso-occlusive crisis enlarged spleen
inherited cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body
screening oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells
dactylitis checking a group of people for the incidence of a disease

Activity 3

Look at the diagram and identify the differences between normal red blood cells and abnormal sickled cells.

  • crédit photo en.wikipedia
  • crédit photo en.wikipedia

Photo: en.wikipedia

Normal red blood cells Abnormal sickled cells
1. Shape
2. Haemoglobin level
3. Effect on blood flow

Activity 4

Complete the information using the words below to help you.

  • blood vessels
  • oxygen
  • vaso-occlusive
  • crescent
  • haemoglobin
  • round
Globules rouges

Cours d’anglais sur la drépanocytose

The function of red blood cells is to carry (1) ___________ around the body. Normal red blood cells are (2) ___________ in shape and quite flexible. In Sickle Cell Disease, red blood cells develop abnormally and form sickle or (3) ____________ shapes. It is more difficult for these sickle-shaped cells to pass through (4) _______________ which become blocked. The blockage of the blood vessels in SCD is called a (5) _________________ crisis or a sickle cell crisis and may last up to a week. Obstruction of the blood vessels in the bones and joints, called dactylitis is very painful. Abnormal red blood cells which are not replaced in the body as quickly as normal red blood cells result in low (6) ______________ levels and anaemia.

Activity 5

Read the information about sickle cell disease and make notes.

What is sickle cell disease?

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of genetic disorders which affects millions of people particularly in Africa, the Mediterranean, India and South America. It causes the formation of atypical haemoglobin molecules called haemoglobin S which distort the shape of red blood cells. The symptoms of sickle cell disease usually begin in early childhood and include a low red blood cell count causing anaemia, repeated infections and periodic episodes of pain.

The premature break down of red blood cells which are not replaced quickly enough causes anaemia. The signs of anaemia are shortness of breath, fatigue and delayed growth and development in children.

The pain suffered in SCD is called a sickle cell crisis or vaso-occlusive crisis because it results after blood vessels are blocked by the abnormally shaped red blood cells. The blockage of blood vessels also deprives tissues of oxygen-rich blood and can lead to organ damage, especially in the lungs, kidneys, spleen and brain. Increased pressure in the blood vessels leading to the lungs can result in pulmonary hypertension which may ultimately lead to heart failure.

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

  1. group of _____________________________
  2. common in _______________  , Mediterranean countries, ___________ ,_____________ __________________________
  3. causes formation of   ________________________ , abnormal _____________________
  4. symptoms are _______________, infections, _______________________________
  5. blockage blood vessels → deprive __________________ → organ __________________
  6. serious complication of increased BP to lungs is ____________________________.

Activity 6

Read the abstract

Neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in France

  • Background

    As a result of population growth in African-Caribbean regions of overseas France, and now immigration essentially from North and sub-Saharan Africa to mainland France, neonatal screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) has been performed in France since 1985 in Guadalupe and dependencies, as a universal test. After several pilot studies, screening was gradually extended to mainland France in 1996. Since 2000, the test has been performed at national level for all newborns defined as being "at risk" for SCD based on ethnic origin.

  • Methods

    A dry blood sample is obtained by heel stick and analysed by isoelectric focusing as a first-line method, followed by either high-performance liquid chromatography or acid agar electrophoresis for confirmation, whenever a variant haemoglobin is observed on isoelectric focusing.

  • Results

    In 2007, 28.45% of all newborns in mainland France were screened for SCD. Since 1996, a total of 3 890 newborns have been found to have SCD, and they have been followed up by reference paediatricians.

  • Conclusion

    Although screening for SCD at birth in France is not universal, it appears that missed babies are relatively infrequent. Despite obvious sociological problems inherent to the at-risk population, the follow-up of SCD babies is rather successful. Due to the birth prevalence of SCD in France, especially in comparison with other common genetic diseases, screening all newborns regardless of ethnic origin is an issue that is being addressed.

Answer the questions

  1. Screening for SCD in France is ______________.

    a. universal

    b. for at risk groups only

    c. undertaken in Guadalupe

  2. At risk' groups are defined according to _________________.

    a. age

    b. ethnic background

    c. French nationality

  3. ___________________ is used to test for SCD.

    a. An MRI

    b. A biopsy

    c. A blood sample.

  4. In 2007 around 30% of ______________ born in France were screened.

    a. every baby

    b. high risk babies

    c. babies with SCD

  5. SCD occurs _____________compared with than other genetic disorders in France.

    a. rarely

    b. each year

    c. frequently

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Author and Consultant in English for Medical Purposes   United Kingdom

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